We all make mistakes but do not always understand them, so we continue to commit them.
The discipline of interaction MAN – MACHINE, that also studies the human factors at the origin of the errors and the strategies to prevent or reduce the effects, can help us to better understand th
Posted August 8,2018 in People and Nations.
A classification of human behavior is analyzed and given by the model skill-rule-knowledge (SRK) made by Dr. J. Rasmussen.
This model divides human behavior into three types which require an increasing level of complexity and so attention and cognitive engagement.
It is the routine behavior based on learned skills for which the cognitive commitment is very low and reasoning is unconscious, automatic.
The person reacts to the stimulus almost instantaneously performing an action related to a procedure well interiorized.
The behavior is guided by rules which the person has to perform known tasks.
The person recognizes the situation and applies the right procedure to perform the task, and then performs a series of actions by the use of procedures.
In this case, the cognitive engagement is higher and implies a certain reasoning.
It is the behavior to use when you are in the presence of new or unforeseen situations, that is not known, for which you do not know the rules or procedures of reference.
The person must react creatively and independently, i.e. without the use of procedures or instinctive behaviors, based on the information available and the knowledge gained.
Based on the model proposed by Rasmussen there are three main types of human error:
We can add a fourth type of error to these three types: the violation.
Errors occur because you want to speed up the process by taking the short cut; mistakes are made through inexperience or overconfidence in our own abilities.
It is very important to understand which kind of error we are committing because we puts us in the position to decide what to do to avoid repeating the same mistake in a similar situation.
To understand the difference between these three main types of error we propose the following exercise in which we summarize three different situations with the same object.
Each of them exemplifies one of the three main errors committed
I’m going to make a gift to my wife and because it is always difficult for me to make gifts as I am not accustomed, after a lot of indecision, I found which is the best gift for her.
As soon as she opens it I can understand from the expression that she doesn’t like it and that she is disappointed, even if she tried to gloss over.
At Christmas my brother bought a gift for his wife and one for me.
As soon as I open my one, we understand that my brother exchanged the two gifts, so I’m left with a pretty dress and his wife with a shiny fountain pen.
My father comes home on the evening of the wedding anniversary without any gift and just he see my mother with a long face, he remembers that he forgot to buy the red roses that he had promised to do in the early morning.
In fact, returning from work he drove up to the house automatically, as he does every night, completely forgetting to stop at the florist.
As can be seen, in all three situations were committed errors that have been more or less unpleasant consequences.
The three errors are significantly different and represent the three main types of error that a person can commit.
In fact, the three situations can be projected to the human actions:
Do you understand which of the three types of error described at the beginning corresponds to each of the situations described?
With this simple exercise we understand the difference between the three main types of error, now we have to analyze which mistakes we commit more frequently.
If we usually commit mistakes, it means that the action plans that we activate are not good, they are incorrect.
Probably we lack the right skills to perform well the task and achieve the goal we have set ourselves, or the skills are not detailed and developed enough, or our knowledge is incorrect.
To reduce or eliminate mistakes we must strive to improve our knowledge, we have to study, to better prepare and train us.
If the errors we make are o lapse or slips, it means that we have the right and complete knowledge to carry out our task but we have to be more focused on what we do, we must reduce distractions and increase attention and rest.
In fact, the origin of slips and lapses are excessive distractions, fatigue, haste, excessive workload, lack of focus and stress.
We can conclude that it is not enough to divide and classify the mistakes we make to avoid them, but this is a first step to implement the best solutions to prevent them, such as the proper training, or the attention and the rest, etc..
If you want, you can do this exercise and test the solution, leaving your answers in the comments:
Reproduced by Shaunak Basu
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